# Python's Built-in Functions: A Complete Exploration :

**Python's Built-in Functions: A Complete Exploration**

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Python has many **built-in functions** that you can use directly without importing anything. These functions cover a wide variety of common programming tasks that include performing math operations, working with built-in data types, processing iterables of data, handling input and output in your programs, working with scopes, and more.

**In this tutorial, you’ll:**

- Get to know Python’s
**built-in functions** - Learn about common
**use cases**of Python’s built-in functions - Use these functions to solve
**practical problems**

To get the most out of this tutorial, you’ll need to be familiar with Python programming, including topics like working with built-in data types, functions, classes, decorators, scopes, and the import system.

**Get Your Code:** Click here to download the free sample code that shows you how to use Python’s built-in functions.

** Take the Quiz:** Test your knowledge with our interactive “Python's Built-in Functions: A Complete Exploration” quiz. You’ll receive a score upon completion to help you track your learning progress:

**Interactive Quiz**

Take this quiz to test your knowledge of the available built-in functions in Python. By taking this quiz, you'll deepen your understanding of how to use these functions and the common programming problems they cover, from mathematical computations to Python-specific features.

## Built-in Functions in Python

Python has several functions available for you to use directly from anywhere in your code. These functions are known as built-in functions and they cover many common programming problems, from mathematical computations to Python-specific features.

**Note:** Many of Python’s built-in functions are classes with function-style names. Good examples are `str`

, `tuple`

, `list`

, and `dict`

, which are classes that define built-in data types. These classes are listed in the Python documentation as *built-in functions* and you’ll find them in this tutorial.

In this tutorial, you’ll learn the basics of Python’s built-in functions. By the end, you’ll know what their use cases are and how they work. To kick things off, you’ll start with those built-in functions related to math computations.

## Using Math-Related Built-in Functions

In Python, you’ll find a few built-in functions that take care of common math operations, like computing the absolute value of a number, calculating powers, and more. Here’s a summary of the math-related built-in functions in Python:

Function | Description |
---|---|

`abs()` |
Calculates the absolute value of a number |

`divmod()` |
Computes the quotient and remainder of integer division |

`max()` |
Finds the largest of the given arguments or items in an iterable |

`min()` |
Finds the smallest of the given arguments or items in an iterable |

`pow()` |
Raises a number to a power |

`round()` |
Rounds a floating-point value |

`sum()` |
Sums the values in an iterable |

In the following sections, you’ll learn how these functions work and how to use them in your Python code.

### Getting the Absolute Value of a Number: `abs()`

The absolute value or **modulus** of a real number is its non-negative value. In other words, the absolute value is the number without its sign. For example, the absolute value of *-5* is *5*, and the absolute value of *5* is also *5*.

**Note:** To learn more about `abs()`

, check out the How to Find an Absolute Value in Python tutorial.

Python’s built-in `abs()`

function allows you to quickly compute the absolute value or modulus of a number:

```
>>> from decimal import Decimal
>>> from fractions import Fraction
>>> abs(-42)
42
>>> abs(42)
42
>>> abs(-42.42)
42.42
>>> abs(42.42)
42.42
>>> abs(complex("-2+3j"))
3.605551275463989
>>> abs(complex("2+3j"))
3.605551275463989
>>> abs(Fraction("-1/2"))
Fraction(1, 2)
>>> abs(Fraction("1/2"))
Fraction(1, 2)
>>> abs(Decimal("-0.5"))
Decimal('0.5')
>>> abs(Decimal("0.5"))
Decimal('0.5')
```

In these examples, you compute the absolute value of different numeric types using the `abs()`

function. First, you use integer numbers, then floating-point and complex numbers, and finally, fractional and decimal numbers. In all cases, when you call the function with a negative value, the final result removes the sign.

For a practical example, say that you need to compute the total profits and losses of your company from a month’s transactions:

```
>>> transactions = [-200, 300, -100, 500]
>>> incomes = sum(income for income in transactions if income > 0)
>>> expenses = abs(
... sum(expense for expense in transactions if expense < 0)
... )
>>> print(f"Total incomes: ${incomes}")
Total incomes: $800
>>> print(f"Total expenses: ${expenses}")
Total expenses: $300
>>> print(f"Total profit: ${incomes - expenses}")
Total profit: $500
```

In this example, to compute the expenses, you use the `abs()`

function to get the absolute value of the expenses, which results in a positive value.

### Finding the Quotient and Remainder in Division: `divmod()`

Python provides a built-in function called `divmod()`

that takes two numbers as arguments and returns a tuple with the **quotient** and **remainder** that result from the integer division of the input numbers:

## Read the full article at https://realpython.com/python-built-in-functions/ »

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July 01, 2024 at 07:30PM

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